2. The Principal Designers of Biosphere 2 and its Biomes

A. Overall Design, Concept and Biomes, Biome Regions Plan: John Allen

B. Overall Architecture Design: Margret Augustine with Phil Hawes with concepts and ecoscapes from John Allen and engineering systems from William Dempster

C. Overall Engineering: William Dempster with inputs from John Allen

D. Technosphere: William Dempster, John Allen, Margret Augustine, and Mark Van Thillo in charge of maintenance and quality control.

Lungs:(variable pressure chambers) William Dempster
Sealing: William Dempster with inputs by Margret Augustine and Peter Pearce

E. Biomes: Habitat: Margret Augustine and John Allen
The design was partially based on previous design and work at:
R/V Heraclitus, an ocean-going ship
Vajra Hotel, Katmandu, Nepal
Caravan Of Dreams art center, Fort Worth, Texas

Agriculture: John Allen and Sally Silverstone, the agriculture biome in Biosphere 2’s Research and Development Center with inputs on cultivars at the Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL), University of Arizona and the Institute of Biophysica, Russia, Bios 3 experiment. Soils: John Allen and Dr. Robert Scarborough.

The design also was partially based on previous design and work with the Institute of Ecotechnics at:

Synergia Ranch, Santa Fe, New Mexico 1969-1985
Les Marrionners Farm, France 1976-1985
Savannah Systems, Australia, 1978-1985
Quanbun Downs, Australia 1976-1985

Ocean: Abigail Alling, with initial consulting by Walter Adey, Smithsonian Institute, working conceptually with John Allen and Margret Augustine.

Marsh: The prototype Biosphere 2 marsh system design and development was by Walter Adey, Smithsonian Institute, working conceptually with John Allen and Margret Augustine. Biosphere 2 marsh was scaled up in design and completed by Abigail Alling

Rainforest: Ghillean Prance, Kew Botanical Gardens, working with John Allen conceptually.

Savannah: Peter Warshall, Arid Lands Studies, University of Arizona, working with John Allen conceptually.

Desert: Tony Burgess, former botanist for the Eco-Hydrology Project of the U.S. Geological Survey, working with John Allen conceptually. Later conversions of the desert to a chaparral ecology in 1993: Tony Burgess and John Allen.

Coordination of rainforest, savannah, and savannah-desert ecotones: Linda Leigh
Coordination of marsh, ocean and streams: Abigail Alling
Both reported to John Allen.

F. Terrestrial Wilderness Biome Animals: Peter Warshall, working with John Allen and Margret Augustine conceptually.

G. Insects: Scott Miller, Bishop Museum, Hawaii

H. Microbes, Ecological: Clair Folsome, NASA exo-biologist, University of Hawaii
Microbes, Human Physiology: Lydia Samova (Institute of Biophysica, Krasnoyarsk,
Russia)

I. Waste Recycling: To 1991 Phil Hawes and William Wolverton (NASA) ; after 1991, Mark Nelson for further develpment.

J. Medical: Roy Walford with a team of over six SBV consultants

K. Conceptual Design of the Five Level Nerve (computer) System: John Allen, Noberto Alvarez-Romo and William Demspter. Hewlett Packard contracted to do the operational design and development

And inspiration and much help on the total system from:
Oleg Gazenko, Evgenii Shepelev, Ganna Maleschko (IBP,Moscow), Josef Gitelson, Nicolai Pechurkin, Lydia Samova (Institute Biophysics, Krasnoyarsk), Eugene Odum, Howard Odum, Richard Evans Schultes, Jack MacCauley, and Keith Runcorn.

To view a List of Consultants and Scientists Conducting Joint Studies at Biosphere 2: jntstudy.html

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