“The Biosphere is the matrix of humanity and all its works.”
John P. Allen
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Documentary Film “Will Apples Grow on Mars?

This remarkable film depicts the creation of Biosphere 2, the world’s first (and so far, only) totally sealed miniature world designed for long term human habitation. In 1991, four men and four women were locked inside Biosphere 2 as an experiment to see if they could survive for two years by recycling all their waste, water and air, and by growing all their food without fertilizers or pesticides. Described as “One of the greatest scientific experiments of the 20th century”, Biosphere 2 contained a rainforest, ocean, river, marsh, desert and a half acre farm.
Director, Ken Howard. Producer, Irving Rappaport.




Visions of Biospheres

by: John Allen & Bernd Lötsch

Renowned ecologists and architects of ideas, Bernd Lötsch and John Allen share their inspiring visions of projects designed to help us understand our biosphere. […]

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Biospherics Papers



 Cospar, Paris, 2004

“Closure as a Scientific Concept and its Application to Ecosystem Ecology and the Science of the Biosphere”, […]



 Advances Space Research 2003, 31(7)

“The legacy of Biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems”, […]



 Environmental Biotechnology, 2010

“Bioengineering of Closed Ecological Systems for Ecological Research, Space Life Support and the Science of Biospherics”, […]



 Ecological Engineering 6, 1996

Scales of ecological engineering.



 Ecological Engineering 13, 15-29

“Biospherics and Biosphere 2, mission one (1991-1993)”, […]



 Ecological Engineering 13, 1999

Biosphere 2 Engineering Design, 1999.

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