Journal Of Life Support and Biosphere Science

Key papers on the results of the two-year Biosphere 2 closure experiment (1991-1993) are published for the first time in this issue.

Papers included:

“Biospheric Theory and Report on Overall Biosphere 2 Design and Performance,” John Allen

“Engineering of Biosphere 2: Closure and Energy,” William F. Dempster

“Closed Ecological Life Support System-Related Activities in Japan,” Sheishiro Kibe, Akira Ashida, Koji Otsubo, Keiji Nitta

“Lessons Learned Studying Design Issues for Lunar and Mars Settlements,” Craig E. Litton

“Nutrient Recycling Systems of Biosphere 2. Litterfall, Decomposition, and Wastewater Recycling: Results from the 1991-1993 Closure Experiment,” Mark Nelson

“Growing Super-Drawf Wheat in Space Station Mir,” Frank B. Salisbury

“Food Production and Nutrition for the Crew During the First Two-Year Closure of Biosphere 2,” Sally Silverstone

Volume 4, Number 3 / 4

$20.00 Credit Cards Accepted

ISSN: 1069-9433, CODEN: LSBSF7, LC: TL 790

Published by Cognizant Communications Corporation

To Order Contact the publisher at: 3 Hartsdale Road, Elmsford, NY 10523

Tel. (914) 592-7720 Fax. (914) 592-8981



Aims & Scope

The Journal of Life Support and Biosphere Science (LS&B Science) is designed to meet the needs of an emerging field of study necessitated by the innate human interest in exploration. As mankind stretches the limits of environmental understanding in space, under the sea, and in harsh Earth environments, new lessons are learned which affect our daily travels on Spaceship Earth.

Small spacecraft and submarines have used physical/chemical measures to recycle clean air and fresh water and principles of these small, unforgiving systems are directly applicable to understanding life support on Earth. As plants are added and biospheric systems become large, basic concepts of cycling of elements and the importance of biodiversity have direct implications for issues of global warming, the protection of endangered species, and clean water requirements. LS&B Science provides a forum for the sharing of these concepts among diverse groups, bringing the issues of Earth in touch with the issues of Space.

Topics include:

Advanced Life Support systems, EVA, Thermal Control Systems, Planetary/Undersea/Earth Habitats, Life Sciences, Environmental Control systems, Closed Environmental Life Support Systems (CELSS), Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) and Bio-regenerative systems.

The Journal covers a spectrum from news and event summaries to peer reviewed technical articles, and contains papers from the leading conferences in this field from around the world. LS&B Science meets the needs of scientists working in this field, and those interested in the design and manufacture of air and water systems, and for people responsible for educating the public about developments and insights from this field.

Now in its 6th Year! The refereed Journal for closed environmental air-water systems serving the research, scientific and industry world-wide in the fields of:

Space and Undersea Life support
Heating, Venting, and Air Conditioning
Municipal Power, Water, Waste
With applications in:
Water/Air Reclamation Using Physical/Chemical systems
Plants/Bio-Regenerative Crops
Water & Air Monitoring
Indoor Gardens for Educational and Research Facilities
Undersea and Polar Habitats
Closed Systems Test Beds

“It is my expectation that this new journal will enable researchers in life support systems, biospheric research, and other related areas to share results and pose further questions that will motivate continues progress in our undertanding of both natural and artificial environmental systems.”
John D. Rummel, Ph.D.
Acting Deputy Chief,
Mission from Planet Earth Study Office, NASA

“It is my hope that the journal, LS&B Science, will provide a scientific and engineering forum for publication of information regarding the role of the terrestrial biosphere in Earth processes, particularly projected global climate change.”
Robert K. Dixon, Leader,
Global Mitigation and Adaptation Program,

“My experience on Salyut taught me the importance of man living with machine. This Journal could do many good things by discussing this relationship.”
Oleg Atkov,
Cardiologist and Cosmonaut

“This new journal will indeed fulfill the role of a rigorously peer-reviewed journal in the area of life support systems and biospherics which is very much needed.”
Donald L. Henninger, Ph.D.,
Chief Scientist for Regerative Life Support Systems,


3 Hartsdale Road, Elmsford, New York, USA 10523-3701 Phone: 914-592-7720 Fax: 914-592-8981
e:mail :



For complete “Instructions to Authors” contact the Publisher: Cognizant Communication, fax: (914) 592-8981, e-mail:


Highlight your company or institution’s work in this field! Place an ad in the Journal and reach every key individual and corporation working in the field of closed ecological systems — one of the major growth industries of the next century — researchers, scientists, and engineers who develop and test portable and stationary life support systems used in space, undersea, polar and terrestrial exploration; government personnel worldwide who need to transfer their knowledge of related programs and alternative technological applications; regulatory agencies requiring technical data and resources; and educators in environmental medical, astronautics, agriculture, engineering, biological, chemical and marine programs.

The Journal presents a golden opportunity for you to draw attention to the activities, products or services in which your organization specializes. The cost for a full page black and white advertisement is US $700 and $455 for a half page.

For more information on reserving advertising space for your company, please contact Bob Miranda at Cognizant.


International Boards of Editors

The Journal of Life Support and Biosphere Science (LS&B Sience)


Harry W. Janes
New Jersey NASA Specialized Centers of Research and Training (NSCORT)
Foran Hall, Cook College, Rutgers University
New Brunswick, NJ 08903
Phone: 908-932-8978 Fax: 908-932-4882

Advising Editor
Guy Fogleman
Lead for Advanced Human Support Technology in the Life Sciences
Division at NASA Headquarters
Washington, DC 20546-0001
202-358-2217 ,

Managing Editor
Physical Chemical Systems
Charles Ray
ED62/Environmental Control and Life Support Branch
Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35805
Phone: 205-544-7227
Fax: 205-544-5874

Managing Editor
Underwater Systems
Dudley Crosson
Delta P
PO Box 8311
Port St Lucie FL 349858311
561.337.2631 (vox)
561.337.0169 (fax)

Managing Editor
Earth Systems
Mark Nelson
Institute of Ecotechnics
London, U.K. and Global Ecotechnics Corp
7 Silver Hills Road
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Tel. (505) 474-0209
Fax. (505) 424-3336

Managing Editor
Advanced Life Support Systems-Space

Managing Editor
Extra Vehicular Activity
Dave Romero
Project Manager
Life Support & Cryogenics
Oceaneering Space Systems
16665 Space Center Blvd
Houston, TX 77058-2268

Managing Editor
Harsh Environmental Systems
David Bubenheim
NASA Ames Research Center
Mail Stop 239-15
Moffett Field, CA 94035
Phone: 415-604-3209 Fax: 415-604-1092

International Editor Japan
Keiji Nitta
Institute for Environmental Science
1-7 Lenomae, Obcuhi,
Rokkasho Village
Kami Kita – Gun, Aomori 039-32 Japan
Phone:(81) 175-71-1205
Fax: (81) 175-72-3690

International Editor Europe

International Editor
Russia Josef Gitelson
Mail Code 239-23
NASA Ames Research Center
Moffett Field, CA 94035

Russia Co-Editor
Peter Chetirkin
Dynamac Corp.
Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899

Contributing Editor
Lighting Systems
Joel L. Cuello, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Department of Agricultural and
Biosystems Engineering
507 Shantz Building
The University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ 85721
TEL (520) 621-7757
FAX (520) 621-3963

Contributing Editor
Space Medicine
Sheryl L. Bishop Assistant Professor Preventive,
Environmental and Occupational Medicine
University of Texas Medical Branch
Galveston, Texas
301 Texas Ave, Route 1150
Galveston, Texas 775551029
(409)747-6129 Fax

Contributing Editor
Space Nursing
Linda Plush,
Advance Practice Nurse, Clinical Nurse Specialist-Adult
Nursing & Nephrology
C/O Plush Systems Inc./West Palm Inc.
1043 West Ave M-4 suite A
Palmdale, Calif 93551
805 949 6780 (24 hrs)
805 949 7292 FAX

Contributing Editor
Food and Nutrition
Charles T. Bourland
Subsystem Manager,
Space Station Food, Flight Crew Support
Division, NASA/Johnson Space Center,
Houston, Texas

Contributing Editor
Human Factors
M. Ephimia Morphew,
The Society for Human Performance in Extreme Environments
6052 Wilmington Pike, No. 166,
Dayton, Ohio 45459
phone: 1-800-447-HPEE

Contributing Editor
Marc M. Cohen, Arch.D, Architect
Advanced Projects Branch
Space Projects Division
Mail Stop 244-14
NASA-Ames Research Center
Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000
TEL: (415) 604-0068
FAX: (415) 604-0673

Associate Editor
Beverly Huff
f. 615-662-1942

Topic Coordinators
Jay Garland
Kennedy Space Flight Center,
Florida 32899

Charles Barnes
Universities Space Research Association
300 D Street SW,
Suite 801Washington DC 20024
202 488-5159
fax: 202 479-2613

Henry A. Robitaille
Strategic Partnerships
Epcot, Trailer 251W
P.O. Box 10,000
Lake Buena Vista, Florida 32830-1000
Phone: 407-560-7369 Fax: 407-560-7227

Physical Chemical Space Systems:
Paul Wieland
Marshall Space Flight Center, AL

Monsi Roman
ED62/Environmental Control and Life Support Branch
Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35805
Phone: 205-544-4071 Fax: 205-544-8355

Mary Traweek
ED62/Environmental Control and Life Support Branch
Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35805
Phone: 205-544-7397 Fax: 205-544-8355

Food and Nutrition:
Yael Vodovotz
NASA Johnson Space Center
Mail Code SP4
Houston, TX 77058
Tel: 281-483-7632
FAX: 281-483-1847

Underwater Systems:
James Kirk
Senior Professional Staff
Power Projection System Dept.
John Hopkins University
Applied Physics Lab
11100 John Hopkins Road
Laurel MD 20723-6099

Kanapathipillai Wignarajah Ph.D
MS 239A-3
Moffet Field, CA 94035

Craig E. Litton
Manager Health and Safety
Wyle Laboratories
Life Sciences Systems and Services
1290 Hercules
Houston, Texas 77058

Abigail Alling
President, Biospheres, A Division of Global Ecotechnics Corp
7 Silver Hills Road
Santa Fe, NM 87505
Tel. (505) 424-0237
Fax. (505) 424-3336

Patrick M. French
International Space University
Strasbourg Central Campus

Mark A. Schneegurt, Ph.D.
Department of Biological Sciences,
University of Notre Dame,
Notre Dame, IN 46556
ph. (219) 631-7187 wk
FAX (219) 631-7413

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